Index Of Trees, Shrubs and Vines

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Blackwood

Acacia Melanoxylon
Fabaceae : Mimosoideae
Sally Wattle, Blackwood
Very Common

This is by far the most common rainforest tree around Robertson. It is a very adaptable, hardy species which colonizes open spaces and comes up along roadsides.

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Lilly Pilly

Acmena smithii See leaf Drawing
Myrtaceae
Lilly Pilly
Very Common

This tree can be recognised by its broad, glossy, dark-green oppisite leaves, about half as wide as long, with smooth edges and a drawn out tip. The midvein on the upper surface is distinct and slightly sunken and the many parallel lateral(side) veins, though dark-green are still visible. The Lilly Pililly is a well shaped, hardy tree with dense shade, and makes a good windbreak. The new growth is reddish-pink. The rough bark is reddish-brown amd is shed in irregular flakes.

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Native Quince

Alectryon subcinereus see leaf Drawing
Sapindaceae
Native Quince
Common

These small trees have alternate, compound leaves, each made up of 2-4 pairs of leaflets. This may be hard to see at first, because the leaflets are quite large, well-spaced, not in opposite pairs and there is no terminal leaflet. The leaflet stalk is very short and swollen and there is a distinctive bump where the leaf stalk joins the main stem. The leaflets usually have a few coarse teeth in the upper half. In some rainforest patches, only young plants are found but, in others, there are small trees with fluted or twisted trunks.

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Gum Vine

Aphanopetalum resinosum
Cunoniaceae
Gum Vine
Common

This climber can be recognized by its very glossy, dark-green, opposite leaves, whose edges have shallow, blunt teeth. The leaves are firm, up to 10 cm long, with a blunt or shortly pointed tip.

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Staff Vine

Celastrus australis
Celastraceae
Staff Vine
Very Common

A vigorous woody climber, which can be distinguished by its alternate, dark-green leaves, usually with small teeth along the edges. The leaves are up to 12 cm long with a tip that is often curved and the midvein is raised on the upper surface.

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Coachwood

Ceratopetalum apetalum See leaf Drawing
Cunoniaceae
Coachwood
Common

In the forest, this handsome tree can be distinguished by its smooth, lightgrey to white bark, with low ridges running around the trunk. There are often whitish, encrusting lichens on the trunk and, on very large trees, the base of the trunk may have rough, dark bark. The common local name for this tree is Leatherjacket.

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Five-leaf Water Vine

Cissus hypoglauca
Vitaceae
Five-leaf Water Vine
Occasional

This vine can be recognized by its alternate, compound leaves, each made up of 5 stalked leaflets coming from one point (like a hand). Each leaflet is rounded at the base, pointed at the tip, and the underside is bluish to ashgrey. The edges are either smooth, or with small teeth, especially in younger foliage. Young plants may have only 3 leaflets in each leaf.

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Orange Thorn

Citriobatus pauciflorus See leaf Drawing
Pittosporaceae
Orange Thorn
Very common

This spiny shrub has small, stiff, shiny leaves with 3-5 small teeth and, in the fork of each leaf, a spine which is longer than the leaf. The leaves are alternate, almost round (or wider at the top), less than 1.5 cm long and carried horizontally on the stem. The young shoots are often coppercoloured.

It is common as a small shrub on the edge of rainforest patches, though it is also found in the forest, and can grow as tall as 3 m.

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Forest Clematis

Clematis glycinoides
Clematis aristata

Ranunculaceae
Forest Clematis
Toothed Clematis

Common

These Clematis vines are tall, vigorous climbers, with opposite, compound leaves, each made up of 3 leaflets. Clematis glycinoides, which occurs in the rainforest, has thin leaflets with edges that are smooth (or with 1-2 teeth near the base), while C.aristata, which is more common in moist eucalypt forest, has thicker leaflets with distinctly toothed edges. These vines do not have tendrils but the leaf stalk can elongate and act as a tendril, twining around any convenient support.

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Prickly Coprosma

Coprosma quadrifida
Rubiaceae
Prickly Coprosma
Common

This small to medium sized shrub (rarely, a small tree) can be recognized by its small (0.5-1 cm long), soft leaves, without teeth on' the edges, that are opposite on the stem. There are no spines in the forks of the leaves, as there are in Citriobatus and Hymenanthera but, as they get older, the small branchlets develop spines at the ends.

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Native Laurel

Cryptocarya glaucescens
Lauraceae
Jackwood, Native Laurel
Common

This medium sized tree can be recognized by the under surface of the leaves, which is bluish-grey with a conspicuous yellow-white midvein. The leaves are alternate, dark-green on the upper surface, with smooth edges, tapering at both ends with a narrow or blunt tip (elliptic). The leaf buds and very young leaves have small pale-brown hairs. The leaves, when crushed, have a laurel scent.

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Black Plum

Diospyros australis
Ebenaceae
Black Plum
Occasional

This is a shrub or small tree, which can be identified by the yellow or yellowish-green underside of the alternate leaves. These are dark-green on the upper surface, thick, 4-10 cm long, with smooth edges, a blunt or rounded tip and a short leaf stalk (2-5 mm long). On established bushes, the branchlets can be seen to zig-zag, and the leaves are arranged in 2 distinct rows.

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Sassafras

Doryphora sassafras
Monimiaceae
Sassafras
Very Common

This is a large tree, often with 2 or more trunks with flaky pale-brown bark. It can usually be identified by the distinctive "sassafras smell" of the crushed leaves.

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Black Oliveberry

Elaeocarpus holopetalli
Elaeocarpaceaes
Black Oliveberry
Occasional

This small to medium tree is widespread but rare through the Robertson rainforest patches. It can be recognized by its dense crown of fairly small (3-8 cm), very stiff, serrated leaves. The underside of the leaf is covered with fine, rusty coloured hairs and prominent veins. The alternate leaves taper towards both ends and the leaf stalk is short (less than 1 cm long).

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Brown Barrel

Eucalyptus fastigata
Myrtaceae
Brown Barrel
Very Common

This medium to large (20-60 m) tree likes cool, moist areas and is found around Robertson, sometimes in rainforest patches but more often nearby or growing in between rainforest areas. A local common name for this tree is White-top Messmate.

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Pinkwood

Eucryphia moorei
Eucryphiaceae
Plumwood, Pinkwood
Common

This is usually a small to medium tree (rarely large) around Robertson, easily recognized by its soft, almost fern-like foliage. The leaves are compound, made up of 2-5 pairs of opposite leaflets and a longer terminal leaflet. These are rounded at the tip, with a short, very fine point. The new shoots are sticky.

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Wombat Berry

Eustrephus latifolius
Philesiaceae
Wombat Berry
Very Common

This is a slender vine with alternate leaves which have many fine, closely spaced, longitudinal veins. The leaves are pointed, have no leaf stalk and, in our area, are 4-8 cm by 2-3 cm. The stems are smooth. Because the leaves on each branchlet are twisted, so they all face the light, these may appear, at first sight, to be compound leaves.

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Native Mulberry

Hedycarya angustifolia
Monimiaceae
Native Mulberry
Very Common

This is a shrub or small tree, growing to about 6 m, usually with several pale-grey trunks coming from the base. The pointed leaves are shiny on the upper surface, with toothed edges and distinct yellowish midvein and lateral veins. When crushed, the leaves have a light, spicy smell, quite distinct from that of Sassafras leaves.

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Tree Violet

Hymenanthera dentata
Violaceae
Tree Violet
Very Common

The Tree Violet is the commonest of the native "Prickle Bushes" around Robertson. The alternate dark-green leaves are soft, with toothed edges and a blunt tip. In the angle between most leaves and the stem is a strong spine. These spines persist even on the leafless older stems.

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Fieldia

Fieldia australis
Gesneriaceae
Fieldia
Occasional

This is a small, semi-epiphytic plant, i.e. it is mostly found growing on mossy rocks, old tree trunks and, particulaily, on treefern trunks. It can be identified by its soft, hairy leaves with coarsely toothed edges and a short leaf stalk. The leaves are opposite but one leaf of the pair is much larger than the other.

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Scrambling Lily

Geitonoplesium cymosum
Philesiaceae
Scrambling Lily
Very Common

This slender climber has narrow, alternate leaves with many fine, longitudinal veins. The leaves are dark-green with pointed tips, and a very short, twisted leaf stalk; in this area, they are 5-9 cm by 0.5-1 cm (can be broader in other areas). There is a raised midvein on the upper surface of the leaf, most distinct near the base. The stems have very fine grooves and feel a little rough to touch. Because the leaves on each branchlet are twisted to catch the light, they may at first sight appear to be compound leaves.

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Climbing Guinea Flower

Hibbertia. scandens
Dilleniaceae
Climbing Guinea Flower
Very Common

This very common vine is easily identified by its bright- yellow, 5-petalled flowers (up to 7 cm across) which are present (at least in ones and twos) for much of the year. Also, the base of the leaf narrows and partly clasps the stem, so there is no leaf stalk. The young, twining shoots are silkyhairy with pinkish stems, but adult leaves are shiny green with pointed tips and edges that are smooth or have only a few small teeth.

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Cabbage Tree Palm

Livistona australis
Arecaceae
Cabbage Tree Palm
Occasional

This palm has shiny green, fan-shaped leaves, about a metre across, each segment ending in a long, drooping tip. The leaf-stalk is 1-2-m long, thick and stiff, with very sharp prickles along each edge. The trunk is grey and narrow, with fissures running up the trunk and growth ridges around the trunk.

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Common Milk Vine

Marsdenia rostrata
Asclepiadaceae
Common Milk Vine
Common

This robust, twining vine can be identified by its dark-green, opposite leaves, on long leaf stalks, which have a yellowish-white midvein on the upper surface. When a leaf is broken off, milky-white sap comes out, which is why, locally, it is commonly called Milky Vine.

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Morinda

Morinda jasminoides
Rubiaceae
Morinda
Common

A slender, attractive vine with shiny dark-green, opposite leaves up to 7 cm long with smooth edges and a narrow, pointed tip. It can be distinguished by the raised midvein on the upper surface of the leaf and by the presence of small, brown, papery (leaf-like) stipules on the stem between each pair of leaves. On the upper surface of many of the leaves, there may be up to 4 small, raised bumps in the angle between the lateral veins and the midvein (these are gland-like depressions on the underside).

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Veined Mock Olive

Notelaea venosa
Oleaceae
Veined Mock Olive
Common

The dull-green, stiff-textured leaves distinguish this bushy shrub or small tree. The leaves are opposite, with pointed tips, and the yellowish midvein is raised on the upper surface. The lateral veins and the network of smaller veins between them are also visible on the upper surface.The edges of the leaves are often wavy.

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Musk Daisy-bush

Olearia argophylla
Asteraceae
Musk Daisy-Bush
Common

The character that distinguishes the Musk Daisy-Bush is the silvery-white underside of the leaves and the distinct musk smell of the crushed leaves. It is a tall shrub or small tree, often with several small, pale grey trunks.

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Anchor Vine

Palmeria scandens
Monimiaceae
Anchor Vine
Common

This vigorous, woody climber has leaves 5-14 cm long, which are rough to the touch because of the presence of many small hairs.

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Wonga Vine

Pandorea pandorana
Bignoniaceae
Wonga Vine
Very Common

This vine, outstanding in flower, can be identified by its opposite, compound leaves, each made up of 2-4 pairs of leaflets with very short stalks and a terminal leaflet. These leaflets have smooth edges and a pointed tip.

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Mountain Silkpod

Parsonsia brownii
Parsonsia straminea

Apocynaceae
Mountain Silkpod
Common Silkpod

Common

Silkpod are tall, vigorous climbers, widespread in the rainforest and moist eucalypt forest. The leaves are opposite, pointed, glossy above and paler underneath. Older leaves are thick and often leathery.

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Brown Beech

Pennantia cunninghamii
Icacinaceae
Brown Beech
Common

This small to medium tree can be recognized by its large leaves (up to 15 cin x 10 cm), shiny-green on the upper surface with wavy edges. The leaves are alternate and the branchlets strongly zig-zag.

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Sweet Pittosporum

Pittosporum undulatum
Pittosporaceae
Sweet Pittosporum
Very Common

This small to medium tree (occasionally large) can usually be recognized by the way the leaves appear to come off the stem in whorls. They are alternate, coming spirally off the stem, but are crowded in groups of up to 6 leaves towards the end of the branchlets.

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Featherwood

Polyosma cunninghamii
Escalloniaceae
Featherwood
Common

This small, attractive tree has shiny, opposite leaves up to 10 cm long, with 4-7 prominent teeth on each edge. Each tooth and the pointed leaf tip ending in a small, thickened point. The leaf stalk is short, 3-6 mm long.

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Pencil Cedar

Polyscias murrayi
Araliaceae
Pencil Cedar
Occasional

Young trees of the Pencil Cedar are readily recognized by their straight, unbranched trunk (up to 6 m), with an almost palm-like top of long, divided leaves.

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Victorian Christmas Bush

Prostanthera lasianthos
Lamiaceae
Victorian Christmas Bush
Common

This is the largest of the native Mint Bushes, often reaching the height of a small tree, about 5 m (sometimes up to 10 m), in the Robertson area. The soft, narrow, opposite leaves are dark-green above and much paler underneath. The tip of the leaf is a fine point and there are usually several small teeth along the edge. Leaves have a distinctive "Mint Bush smell" when crushed.

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Possumwood

Quintinia sieberi
Escalloniaceae
Possumwood
Common

Older trees of Possumwood, which may be 20 m high, can be recognized in the forest by their rough, knobbly-brown bark, with longitudinal fissures, often speckled with a pale-green lichen. This is one of the rainforest trees that germinates on the trunks of treeferns, the roots gradually making their way to the ground. Quite often, as in the Robertson Nature Reserve, large Possumwoods can be found with the trunk of an old treefern still attached.

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Brush Muttonwood

Rapanea howittiana
Myrsinaceae
Brush Muttonwood
Common

This is an attractive, small to medium tree, up to 15 m high. The alternate leaves (5-10 cin long) are dark, shiny-green on the upper surface and the tip is blunt or rounded. The midvein is raised on both surfaces. The leaf buds and very young leaves are covered with rusty brown hairs.

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White Supplejack

Ripogonum album
Smilacaceae
White Supplejack
Occasional

This shrubby climber has leathery leaves, which are opposite or nearly so, and often occur in threes. The leaves are large, up to 12 cm long, and have a long vein on either side of the midvein (Another long vein may be visible right near the leaf edge). These veins all reach the end of the leaf. The leaves look rather similar to those of Smilax, but White Supplejack has no prickles on its young stems and, in Smilax, the leaves are alternate, and well spaced.

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Broad-Leaf Bramble

Rubus moluccanus var trilobus
Rosaceae
Broad-leaf Bramble
Common

This prickly scrambler can be recognized by its broad, serrated, alternate leaves which have an elongated heart shape. The leaves are dark-green above but the underside is pale and covered in fine hairs with a rusty tinge. The midvein underneath is armed with small thorns. The leaf stalk is distinctly prickly and longer than half the leaf blade.

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Green-Leaf Bramble

Rubus nebulosus
Rosaceae
Green-leaf Bramble
Common

This prickly native vine is often confused with the much more common introduced Blackberry and is thus in danger of being destroyed. Both have leaves with 5 serrated leaflets arising from one point (like a hand). The easiest way to tell them apart is that the underside of the leaflets of the native vine is green while the underside of the Blackberry leaflets is whitish with many fine hairs.

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Rose-Leaf Bramble

Rubus rosifolius
Rosaceae
Rose-leaf Bramble
Common

This is a scrambling, soft-leaved prickly shrub with alternate, compound leaves. Each leaf is made up of 2-3 pairs of toothed leaflets and a longer, terminal leaflet.

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Yellow Elderberry

Sambucus australasica
Caprifoliaceae
Yellow Elderberry
Occasional

This soft-leaved shrub can be recognized by its opposite, compound leaves, each made up of 3-5 leaflets with toothed edges. These leaflets are 5-15 cm long, the tips are pointed and the mid and lateral veins are visible on both surfaces.

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Pearl Vine

Sarcopetalum harveyanum
Menispermaceae
Pearl Vine
Occasional

This vine has alternate, very glossy, heart-shaped leaves, with 7 prominent veins radiating from the base of the leaf. The leaves have a long, narrow tip, 2 rounded lobes at the base of the leaf blade and there may be a few small irregular angles on the leaf edge. The leaf stalk is long, more than half as long as the leaf blade and it joins the edge of the leaf between the two lobes.

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Austral Sarsaparilla

Smilax australis
Smilacaceae
Austral Sarsaparilla
Very Common

This is a tough, vigorous climber with alternate, leathery leaves and all but the youngest stems are covered with numerous, small prickles.

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Kangaroo Apple

Solanum aviculare
Solanaceae
Kangaroo Apple
Very Common

This large shrub has long, soft leaves (up to 35 cm), with pointed tips. The leaves on the young plant are strongly lobed, up to 4 large lobes on each edge. On mature bushes, most of the upper leaves are unlobed and narrow, about 10 times as long as wide. The midvein and branchlet stems have a distinctive purplish colour. The midvein is slightly raised on the upper surface and very prominent on the underside.

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Scrub Beefwood

Stenocarpus salignus
Scrub Beefwood
Proteaceae
Common

This bushy tree can be readily recognized by the distinct longituinal veins on most of the leaves. As well as the midvein, there is a long vein on either side, half way between the midvein and the leaf margin. The dark-green, alternate leaves have smooth edges and they narrow towards both ends; the tip can be blunt or pointed. The leaves can vary both in size and shape.

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Scentless Rosewood

Synoum glandulosum
Meliaceae
Scentless Rosewood
Common

This is a shrub or small tree, which has alternate compound (pinnate) leaves with only 3-4 pairs of leaflets and a terminal one, each with smooth edges tapering to a blunt point. The leaf stalk is swollen where it meets the main stem and the whole compound leaf is less than 40 cm long. The midvein is raised on the upper surface of the leaflets and there are several small hollows on the undersurface where the lateral veins meet the midvein.

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Pepper-Bush

Tasmannia insipida
Winteraceae
Pepper-bush
Occasional

The leaves of this shrub are dark glossy green, up to 20 cm by 5 cm, and taper to a narrow point at the tip. The shape of the base of the leaf clearly distinguishes this species from other shrubs in the area. Although the leaf narrows towards a point near the base, the taper stops abruptly, so that the base of the leaf is about 5-7 mm wide and truncate, or slightly lobed, where it joins the (very short) leaf stalk.

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Mountain Water Gum

Tristaniopsis collina
Myrtaceae
Mountain Water Gum Hill Kanuka
Common

Around Robertson, this is a shrub to medium tree, with pale, creamy-grey bark. The leathery leaves are alternate. with smooth edges. They are narrow, tapering equally at both ends (elliptic) and are about 5-8 cm long. The lower surface of the leaf is much paler than the upper surface and the short leaf stalk is purple.

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Bearded Tylophora

Tylophora barbata
Asclepiadaceae
Bearded Tylophora
Common

This is a small, twining plant with soft leaves which are not as glossy as most of the other local rainforest vines.

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